English language Suomen kieli Russian language

The Khibiny relief

The major rock massif of the Kola peninsula is the oval- shaped Khibiny. The height of the mountains is 1200.6 meters. The Khibiny tundra is 40 kilometers long from North to South and 50 kilometers long from West to East. The Khibiny are characterized by plateau-shaped tops with steep show-covered slopes with deep river valleys. These valleys have U-shape being formed due to glacier. Plateau-shaped tops were formed due to elevation of the specific area of the earth crust during multiphase period. They are still forming.

The Khibiny relief

The approximate velocity of rockmass elevation is registered of 1-2 centimeters per year. At present glacierization of the Khibiny mountains stops. The scientists assume that there are 4 glaciers but this theory has no evidence.

In the relief of the Khibiny tundra there are typical mountain cirques and depressions - cirques and kars being formed by permanent glaciers. Glacial troughs are found in this rockmass as mountain valleys of U-shaped lateral section, wide bottom and steep walls, for example, Petrelius, Kukisvum and Gakman valleys. Here can be found tectonic gorges of U- and C- shape (Skal'noye, Ramsay and Aku-Aku). They have been formed in the areas of deep mountain split.

Kars are cup-shaped hollows on the mountains slopes near its top. Glacier cirques are pits in the mountains resembling amphitheater. These relief formations were exposed to glacier action during a long period of time thus making them large in size.

The Khibiny rockmass has simple and complicated types of glacier cirques. The first type consists of cirques located practically in all river heads. Complicated type is a joining of all simple cirques into one system. For instance, cirque in the Yuksporijok river valley has name - Podyomny. Complicated cirques are located in the following river heads: Malaya Belaya, Rasvumijok, Vuonnemijok, Tuliijok and Petrilius.

Another interesting peculiarity of the Khibiny rockmass relief is open fractures. Fractures strike as unusual against main relief, its reasons of formation are not clear. Such mountain formations stretch along water shed for hundreds of meters crossing mountain plateau and spurs. They are clearly seen from far away without special magnifying equipment. Ramsay gorge has a mountain pass for tourists - Yuksporlak, Gorge of Geographers - Northern Chorgorr mountain pass.

Another interesting peculiarity of the Khibiny rockmass relief is open fractures. Fractures strike as unusual against main relief, its reasons of formation are not clear. Such mountain formations stretch along water shed for hundreds of meters crossing mountain plateau and spurs. They are clearly seen from far away without special magnifying equipment. Ramsay gorge has a mountain pass for tourists - Yuksporlak, Gorge of Geographers - Northern Chorgorr mountain pass.

In the following millennia which consist of several geological epochs, the territory of the Kola peninsula was subjected to process of gradual elevation of the earth crust. Thus results into significant failures of the upper relief, weathering and loss of the upper material by river waters and glaciers. Such complex negative influence leads to intrusion release from the overlaying rocks. During the last 30-40 million years tectonic processes in the surrounding plains have elevated the chilled intrusion and formed mountains.

At present the Khibiny are presented by nepheline syenites - alkaline rock mass of magmatic origin. The basic minerals are nepheline, feldspar and aegirine. The peculiar feature of the Khibiny is inhomogeneous weathering of the rocks due to resistance of its elements. Such geological process of failure resulted in formation of rock sharp surface that is untouchable and cut the hands. Weathering is the reason of soft and slippery cover of rock debris having size of 0.5-3 cm in diameter.

Индекс цитирования     Яндекс.Метрика
КНОПКА