English language Suomen kieli Russian language

Saami origin

One can't say from where the Saami people came and why inhabited the land where they live now as there is no an absolute answer for that question in any historical document. One can't say that the Saami originated from the Swedish as there is nothing similar in their features, religion, anatomy, traditions. Everyone surely met the Saami and will confirm that this people belongs to other folk. Moreover, one can't say that the Saami originated from the Russian or Moscovites as they have nothing in common.

Saami origin

The peculiar feature of the Russian is tall height, the Saami are not tall, Russians are full bodied while the Saami are slim. As for hair, the Russian have good head of hair, the Saami have thiny hair, complexion of the Russian is healthy and apple-cheeked, the Saami have sallow complexion of redish color. The language behavior is completely different.

The Saami are close to Finnish or Norwegian above all the neighboring peoples. As the Norwegian have much in common with Swedish they should be excluded as well. Then the only hypothesis remains that the Saami people originate from the Finns. Vexionius sided this idea: «The Saami probably came from Finland and are the ancestors of Finnish as there is a parish that still named - Lappio», he wrote in his work «Description of Sweden».

The Saami called themselves Sabmi or Same, while the Finns called themselves Suomi. It is evident that both these words have no big difference and are just two words from two dialects or parlance. Both folks have a legend about common ancestor - Jumi. The languages are so similar that have many common roots and basic words. For example: Jumala - means God in Finnish, the Saami called the God - Jubmal. Fire in Finnish is tuli, in Saami - tolle. Mountain or hill - wuori and warra, etc.

The following proofs of closely relation is in appearance and traditions. The Finns and the Saami are not tall, has a black color of hair and a face of clear-cut cheekbones. Some difference can be explained by difference in climate and living conditions, that is daily life that in no way denies the close relation and origin. It should be noted that the clothes of the Saami is practically the same as Finnish wear.

At last it should be added that there is much in similar in the character of both folks. The Saami and the Finns, based on words of Vexionius, are hard-working if they are outside their country but lazy in their sweet home. The Saami start working only in case of urgent need. Besides, according to Vexionius's tales, the Finns are too stubborn and persistent, so are the Saami. In particular, if they consider something suspicious or demanding violent revenge. The Finns believe in mysticism and are leaning to magic, the Saami are superstitious.

Moreover, the Saami consider themselves migrants from Finland and it is absolutely true. This legend makes the rounds and can be confirmed by the fact that the chieftains' names who were the first to migrate are still kept and known. But still the reason is not clear why the Saami migrated from Finland although several writers tries to find an answer.

For example, Zecharia Palantin told the following: «According to legend, the basic and main reason for migration was severity of the local authorities. Being tired of painful offences and duties they left their countrymen in Tavastia that is located near Brokarla and Reungoarius and went to forest called the Tavatian. Sometime later the Saami arrived to the coast of the Bothnic Gulf adjacent to Esterbothnia. After tiresome trip they settled there». But it does not correspond to the meaning of the word Saami which is interpreted as outcast or exile. The word can't be compared to those who left the country and went away from hard living conditions. Yet it is considered that they got their name as then they were exiled from the land and deported far from their home.

Moreover, the other reasons of the Saami migration are worth attention as it gives explanation why they were called outcasts and exiles. It is believed that the Finns were exiled to Lapland but it happened not on the first try, but several stages. It was provided due to and according to legend and several known names of the chieftains as Tins Kogre and Mieskogieske. It is most likely that the first and earlier expulsion was the one that gave origin to the Biarmians. There is no doubt that the Biarmians were the folk with Finnish roots. This information can be confirmed by the fact that they gave their idols Finnish names and at last for all strangers became the Skridfinni i.e. the Finns that slide over the snow. Some writers called the Finns as Biarmians. Nevertheless the Biarmia name itself, according to Ioannes Burei, originates from the misspelled Finnish word varama, i.e. so called mountain area. The Biarmian got this name as they were expelled to mountains, northern area.

As for the second migration, when the Russians have conquered almost all the eastern lands, including Ladoga lake, no doubt, some part of the Finns left home land. Being frightened by severity of the Russians they went to the north to Lapland. This hypothesis is considered true to life due to the fact that the Russians called them Kajenni.

This data was taken by the Russians based on their own experience as they were not in the known of other folks' history and their own history, in particular, and they had no idea of even small events of the oldest times in their own country.

In The Chronicles of Snorre it is stated: «From there he came, Harald Garfager, sailed to Finnmark to the north till Biarmia where fight took place when he won and took the richest catch». So, it can be concluded the following: the Biarmians lost a battle after invasion of Harald, the Finns were safe and sound in Finnmark, and after that the Biarmian were abandoned and their name was buried in oblivion.

Of course it all happened long before the chronicles included the first mentioning about the Saami. At that oldest times they were not spoken of, there were only tales about the Finns, Skritfinni and the Biarmians.

It is the next epoch that gave the term «Saami». However, It couldn't be found in the works of Adam Bremensky who lived at the end of twelfth century, but in the chronicle of Saxo Grammaticus the first mentioning can be dated of about 1200. That is why it seems true that only after the third migration that happened during the indicated above period of time this folk was named the Saami. The indigenous people of Finland who adopted the Christianity and was subordinated to Sweden considered the Saami runaways. The Saami being afraid of Swedish authorities and hating the Christianity run away from their own motherland and became outcasts. Therefore, they were called the Saami and they are not indifferent to it and considers it humiliating.

After inhabitants of Finland this name was borrowed by Swedish, Danes and then Saxo Grammaticus and after him, Ziegler who visited Sweden as well as Damian Goen who borrowed it from Olaus and Johannes Magnus.

This name was given to all folks that live in the lands to the north of the Bothnic bay, in particular, under the rule of Sweden. The only excluding was a small group of people at the coast of the northern Norway - Finnmark. This group of the Saami kept their old name of the eastern part that was adjacent to the White sea and its inhabitants – moscovites, i.e. Russian called it Kajanni. However, they called the people the Saami that there is no doubt was adopted from neighboring Finns.

Индекс цитирования     Яндекс.Метрика