A place to stay must be selected in the territory with minimal natural hazards: as far as possible from anthills, bear dens, rockfall possibility, water level rise. Next you should estimate the total area, do all tents and fire go in or not. To choose the territory for the overnight stay it is recommended a few hours before sunset, so that was a good opportunity to look around and assess the situation.
It will be good if there is a small pond not far from the camp . However, if overnight stay takes place in mountains, you must make sure that tents will not be located in the floodplain. Otherwise, during night heavy rainfall the water level can dramatically rise and flood the camp. Also, if you have decided to set up camp in a mountain valley between two ridges, try to estimate the possibility of avalanches or mudflows. To do it well, try to inspect the surrounding slopes for the presence of overhung snow caps and lumps of ice blocks on the rock tops.
Usually going on a trip tourists plan the places for the potential overnight stay. But if it didn’t happen, it should be considered an hour before the potential rest stop. The overnight stay must have sufficient quantity of dry branches and wood for fire kindling, the plot itself should be flat and dry. If you are staying in a mountainous area, you should check it for «fresh fallen» stones. It can be checked by the presence of moss or other vegetation there. It should be added that spending night in a mountainous area, it would be better to take an oil stove, because to get the wood will be very difficult there.
After choosing of the overnight stay you can spread out and put up tents, make a fire and cook food. It could easily happen that someone had forgotten to bring a tent or it simply went out of service. The situation can be changed, if you decide to build a shelter from hand material. It will be even for the winter period of time, especially if you hike in forest. Let’s consider a variant of shelter construction from fir branches.
First, you need to rake snow and do something like recess for shelter location. Then you can start to harvest the necessary number of branches and poles. It would be better not to cut trees entirely and use lower branches only. If the tent is made by a few people, you can divide into groups - one makes the recess and rake snow, the second prepares the branches.
After preparation of all the necessary it’s necessary to make a side pole frame. To do it correctly, branches should be installed as stable as possible and it bounds together with ropes. Then on the ground or snow you should laid fir branches. It should be laid as flat as possible for the prevention of branches sticking out and someone’s hurting. The next stage is the upper frame making, it serves as the shelter’s ceiling. For the strength branches are also bounds with ropes. After that, the frame should be covered by fir branches with hard efforts to avoid gaps forming. The entrance also can be covered with branches, shelter should be lined with snow if weather conditions require for it.
Among other things, during hiking you can face to forced overnight stay because of bad weather, an unknown terrain or tourists fatigue. This overnight stay should be arranged on any surface that suits to safety requirements. So, a few people can spend the night in a tent or sleep standing. If the forced overnight stay took place in a mountainous area, you can hide in cracks, ditches or caves.
It’s necessary to add that in any trip very important item is the camp routine. You should not stay too long around the campfire, because in morning there is a long way, requiring a great forces. You must have good supper and dry things around the campfire if necessary.
In the morning after breakfast it’s time to close the camp up. In rainy or cold weather backpacks are gathered in a tent or a hut. When the weather's good things are carried out, the tent is aired or dried and then all the things are placed in the backpacks. Before leaving, you should make sure that nothing is forgotten. Food remnants you should leave for animals and constructed tables or benches - for other tourists. All litter should be burned, the fire should be stiffed.