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Natural characteristics of the Khibiny

Vast valleys with largest local lakes of Imandra and Umbozero are adjoining to the Khibiny massif in the West and East. Local valleys are mainly characterized by straight-line direction and wide bottom - up to 1 kilometer. This is due to its formation under the glacier action. Such well-known valleys are the areas near the rivers: Loparskaya, Kukisjok, Yuksporijok, Vuonnemjok and other. There are some river valleys that have intricate direction as fractures with sudden turnings. For example, Gakman river valley changes its flow direction practically at a right angle.

Natural characteristics of the Khibiny

Mountains barren of forest vegetation local people call tundra and, as a rule, are dissected by deep openings. Indigenous people of Murmansk region are called Saami and they live farming reindeers, fishing and hunting.

Relief Khibiny close to recent one in the area of the Khibiny tundra has been formed 20-30 million years ago. It is then when the recent relief was formed under tectonic movements impact of individual sites of the plains by faults of the earth crust.

The Khibiny have been formed during the last 40 million years. Rock mass is U-shape plateau composed of nepheline syenites. These rocks have formed after magma crystallization left from active for 380 million years volcano-giants. They chilled down many millions years ago and were washed away by river flows. 10 000 years ago after the glacier cover melted the mountains raised.

Process of the Khibiny growth was irregular, this can be found in the peculiarities of its geological structure. Mountains are concentric of shape resembling the funnel, its age is changing from the edge to center decreasingly.

Scientists believe that the Khibiny have raised 20 million years ago by 500 meters' height and were surrounded by the plain. Then rock massif growth had a prolonged break of about 15 million years. After that it proceeded and the mountains became twice as high. During the last 10 thousand years the Khibiny has raised by 20 meters and proceeds growing till present day. The highest peaks are located in the western area of the rock massif - Yudychvumchorr has a height of 1201 meters and Chasnachorr of 1189 meters. Around the rock massif the plain was formed of hilly structure. Here the rock age is up to 3 billion years but they are hidden under the small layer of sand, clay and peat.

Uplifting and depression were accompanied by earthquakes. The memory about this is preserved in Saami legends about the Mountain Spirit Aroma-Tell'. Weak earthquakes in the Khibiny were observed at present days. They are studied by the researchers of Apatity seismic station of the Kola Science Center RAS.

Background of the regional relief is flat highlands and valleys formed in the bed rock along the lines of earth crust faults, where the glacier traces moving from Scandinavia can be found. During its movement the glacier polished the rocks leaving scars and scratches on the surface, shifted huge masses of ground by it material: pebble, sand, rock debris. After the glacier had melted all this material left on the surface and as a result, the moraine hills and ridges were formed. Due to action of melt water eskers and sandrs appeared.

Background of the regional relief is flat highlands and valleys formed in the bed rock along the lines of earth crust faults, where the glacier traces moving from Scandinavia can be found. During its movement the glacier polished the rocks leaving scars and scratches on the surface, shifted huge masses of ground by it material: pebble, sand, rock debris. After the glacier had melted all this material left on the surface and as a result, the moraine hills and ridges were formed. Due to action of melt water eskers and sandrs appeared.

Surface of the Khibiny region is constantly changing although the velocity of such changes is minor. Somewhere in the subsurface there are magma pockets, deep tectonic forces. The sun, water, vegetation are working on the surface: destroying rockmass, removing the relief.

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