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Minerals of the Khibiny

Original geology of the largest rock massif has produced interesting structure of the Khibiny minerals. First of all, apatite-nepheline ores should be described. At present the following deposits are discovered - Kukisvumchorr, Yukspor, Rasvumchorr, Koashva, Partomchorr, Kuel'porr, Lyavojok, Oleny Ruschei, N'yorkpakhk, Suoluiaiv, Poachvumchorr, Valleepakhk, Eveslogchorr. As a mineral, apatite has a wide range of tones, as a rule, from white to green, but sometimes black apatite can be found. Mineral content in ore is varied from 2 to 75 percent. Apatite is complicated by composition, it consists of calcium, fluorine, phosphoric anhydride and many other chemical elements.

Kirov mine

Apatite is used to produce mineral fertilizers, the most famous and widely used is superphosphate. It is obtained as a result of apatite concentrate treatment by sulfuric acid. And besides, phosphoric anhydride in apatite takes another form and being highly soluble and easy perceived by vegetation.

Moreover, nepheline concentrate is recovered from apatite concentrate, as a result it will used to produce potash, soda and many other. Then this mineral will be used for more than twenty fields of industry. Its content in ore is varied from 5 to 50 percent. Composition of apatite and nepheline in ore is interrelated, that is if apatite prevails it means it will be less of nepheline and vice versa.

As a rule, apatite-nepheline ore comprises of sphen-mineral, it is consists of silicon, titanium oxide, niobium and sodium. It is used to produce good titanium white, durable and consistent. On top of that - metallic titanium, non-corrosive, alkaline- and other acid- resistant, quite light. Ores of Yuksporr are considered the most rich in this mineral.

Ring shape of the Khibiny can be considered the peculiar aspect of the rock massif. Mountains of the massif are the arcs almost put one into another.

Landscape of the khibinites is arranged partly as a ring of the Khibiny rock mass. Aegirine, nepheline and potassium feldspar are prevailing minerals. Rocks are peculiar by series of ores as titanium, zirconium, molybdenum and rare soils consisting of cerium and yttrium.

Another complex is rischorrite that looks like massif, grey and greenish rock. It is composed of crystals of feldspar and nepheline as well as mixture of minerals of aegirine - augite, mica, astrophyllite, aenigmatite, sphen and lamprohylitte.

The last one is named ijolite-urtite, it is different completely from other ores due to its chemical composition. It has higher content of alkaline and alum earth but low content of silicon earth. Ijolite-urtite are mainly consists of nepheline and aegirine-augite, therefore they have grey-green color. Minerals of this complex from non-ferrous group are pyroxene and apatite.

Complex of medium-grained nepheline syenite are located almost in the center of mountains. It includes: spar, nepheline, aegirine and alkaline amphibole. Foyaite complex is located in the center of the mountain and stretched along one third of the massif. Mineral composition is potassium - this sodium feldspar and nepheline, non-ferrous minerals - alkaline amphbole, aegirine, biotite, sphen, apatite and other.

Academician Aleksander Fersman believed that the Khibiny tundra are the natural mineralogical gallery. It goes without saying, it is, one hundred and eight mineral varieties are extracted here, more than ten of them are of great commercial value. It is apatite, sphen, nepheline, titanomagnetite, lovchorrite and others. By the way, mining waste called «nepheline tailings» are the main deposit that will surely provides for required material for many decades.

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