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Lapland location

Idea of geographical location of Lapland during old times was unclear. Saxo Grammaticus described the location as near Jamptia (Yami, Yam’ - present day area of Yamburg-Kingisepp). The scientist wrote that regions of the Yampts and Narnbers, Helsings and both Lappia were under the rule of Domar. It can be concluded that Lapland area stretched till the end of Finland and Helsingia. Grammaticus wrote that Domar was entitled to take a tribute each year from Estia (Estonia), Helsingia, both Lappia (Laplands) and Finnia (Finland). It means that scientist thought the country is located between the two countries - Finnia and Helsingia. Estia and Yami area were the neighbors of Lapland.

Lapland location

Erik Olafsson of Uppsala believed that Lappia is a part of Finnia. He wrote in his works that the nearest to Russia and Sweden is Finland that includes Newland, Lapland, Karelia and Tavastia. It is evident that he indicated the location of Lapland as between Newland and Karelia.

Scientists Olaus Magnus published his map where he placed Lapland near Biarmia and Skrikfinnia as well as over Vasterbotten area. In his works Skrikfinnia was in the very north, Biarmia was located in the east; Lapland was below and in the west. His brother Johannes Magnus has the same idea of the northern lands.

Many scientists of the later time flatly denied Skrikfinnia. Burei was among them. He wrote that old writers together with Saxo Sieland are not right about Skrikfinnia. However, Magnus brothers (Johannes and Olaus) described Skriefinni. But it would be more correct to say Skritofinni. Andrey Burei for no good reason assumed to spell it Skidfinni as letter «R» is provided by other authors in spite of other minor differences. So, Jordanes used Skretefennae, Adam Bremensky - Skritefinni but Paulus Varnefridus changed several letters in the middle and got Skritobini. The Greeks which are known to follow the spelling rules used name - Skritofinni that corresponds to indicated above authors.

The conclusion denies the theory that in the North there were no country with a similar name. There are still Finnish people living in this land (Skritofinni) that ski using skies made of wood. Taking into account this fact the name of the country was properly selected.

The same can be referred to Biarmia described by many scientists although some authors denies this fact. But it can be easily confirmed by the facts provided in the descriptions of many ancient authors. Among them the ancient historiographer who wrote in Icelandic and Old Gothic languages. He lived at the time of king Boz and Gerauda and he mentioned in his works Biarmland several times. Also he described the king of that country Herekr and his heirs - Siggeir and Roerik. In ninth century Saxo Grammaticus wrote the name of other king who reigned over these lands at that time - Regner, the king of Denmark.

One more ancient chronograph who was mentioned by Grotius considered Finnish people to be Skritfenos. The scientists revealed two groups of Finnish: Redefenos and Skritfenos. The same can be described for the Biarmians as they were the neighbors to Finland area as it is confirmed by above stated authors. In addition the Icelandic story writer noted that population used word Iomala. In finnish it means God till nowadays.

Some scientists were wrong as well in their theory that Biarmia was only the part of the territory which modern Swedish called Trennes.

Nowadays in the northern land there are no traces of Skritfinnia and Biarmia. All the areas with such old names are now Lappish. This land is located from the boundaries of Ingermanland and Jumi to Finland and Karelia as well as it borders to Bothnic Gulf. In other words, Lapland covers the whole territory to the north and shores of several water entities: Ladoga lake, the White sea and Ice Ocean including Saami in the Kola peninsula. Therefore, this is a true story of Skritfinnia and Biarmia. Although it is most likely that ancient scientists didn't know that they reached the ocean waters.

Johannes and Olaus Magnus also were mistaken when divided Skritfinnia and Biarmia and Lapland marked in separately in the north of the map. Later this incorrect data were taken by Damian Goen as he relied on the information of brothers when he studied the Lapland.

In his work «Spain» Goen describes Lapland consisting of eastern and western parts and Torneo between them. The territory of the country he described as follows: the eastern part bordered the White sea, the north bordered to several countries and ended nowhere. He used this expression as he didn't know the population of the country inhabited the area till the shore of the ocean.

The ancient authors characterized other peoples besides the Skritfinni: the Cynocephalus, the Cyclops, the Pygmy, the Bosia, the Troglodytes, the Hymantopodes and other. At present it is proved that the entire territory of Lapland was inhabited only by Lappish.

And it is confirmed by Peter Claudi in his «Description of Norway». He wrote about Lappish called seaside Finnish living along the shore and further on to the east and north.

Special attention should be given to the part of Lapland under Swedish reign. Paulinus in his work «History of the Arctic» described this large area equal to the size of Sweden. However, Andrey Burei had changed the size of this area. He believed that the length was no more than on e hundred German miles, the width was little less. Geographically, the area located between 64-71 degrees of latitude and the width is of 27 degrees. Vexionius and Burei are of the same opinion. Longitudinally the country is within 38-56 degrees. However, these parameters were given to the area under Swedish rule or to the entire territory.

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