Climatic conditions in the Kola peninsula are characterized by being close to Atlantic ocean and warm undercurrent of Gulfstream. Gulfstream provides for relative warmth of the Barents and Norwegian seas which major part is unfrozen during the most harsh winter periods. This contributes to the relatively mild temperatures in winter season. It is more evident at the Kola Bay and at the seashore of the Barents sea. Climate here is moderately cold, marine and winter is mild, summer is chilly. Gulfstream’s influence on air warming is decreasing away from sea. Therefore, in the center of the rock massif continental climate prevails. The White sea is frozen during winter, it doesn’t make the climate mild.
Often cold and warm air currents encounter over the waters of the Barents and Norwegian seas. In winter they transform into cyclones, in summer - into anticyclones. Autumn and winter warm cyclones increase ambient temperature by heating the air. The wind becomes stronger bringing rain clouds. Anticyclones have opposite influence on climate of the Khibiny. Spring and summer are peculiar of low humidity, changing wind and its decrease.
Winds in the Khibiny have direction from the north and north-west. Average annual wind velocity is 5-10 meters per second. During winter wind gusts are of up to 15 meters per second and more. Hurricanes of up to 40 meters per second are possible in mountain gorges and passes as well as Kola bay coast, near Murmansk. In mountains wind gusts are as strong as in seacoast of Murmansk region. It does not exceed 3 meters per second in valleys but in mountains it can reach 6 meters per second. During winter cold wind brings snowstorms lasting several days in a row. For instance, Saamskaya river coast suffers snowstorm up to 125 days almost each year. Strong wind redistributes snow cover by drifting snow into high snowdrifts and sweeps it in flatlands.
Specific geographical location of the Khibiny creates peculiar temperature regime of marine type. Therefore, cyclone masses bring warmth and humidity into the Khibiny during autumn and winter time. Anticyclone air is a reason for dry and cold summer. In autumn it is warmer in the Khibiny massif than in spring. It is due to great loss of warm during spring time related to snow and ice melting, warming of frozen soil. During spring in the east of the region there is a significant cold rather than in the west due to colling impact of anticyclone of the Barents and frozen White seas. Winter is quite warm, especially behind the Arctic Circle. The average air temperature in winter is -10 to -13 degrees Celsius.
It is relatively warmer in Murmansk coast: -6-8 degrees Celsius. Temperature in mountain valleys and tops can vary almost by 15 degrees. It can be explained by descend of cold air masses into closed lowlands. Frost is rarely is above -35 but sometimes it can be -40. It all depends on anticyclones that bring cold from Taimyr and Kara sea. Often such cyclones appear at the end of autumn and disappear in February. In summer interchanging of hot and thunder is observed. Hot weather is when the air is up to +35 degrees. Therefore, it can be warm enough in June and July in the areas far away from the seacoast. Summer in the Khibiny is mainly cold, average temperature is +10 to +14 in the mountains and +9 in the Barents and White seacoast. Cloudless summer nights are characteristic of recurrent frosts thus making the soils unfavorable for agriculture.
Average annual temperature is different for each relief zones of the peninsula. Near Rasvumchorr mount it is -4.8 degrees below zero, near Kirovsk a little bit higher than +1 degree. In 20th century the climate warming is observed globally. At average the temperature increased by 4 degrees in comparison to previous century. All over the world it is so called greenhouse effect, and in the Khibiny climate it impacts by decreasing number of cold winters.