Mountain hiking is difficult. There is constant feeling of danger such as crash, stone falls, avalanches and so on. It should therefore be well prepared for it and know the basic means of survival in the mountains and in the forest, accompanied by harsh and extreme conditions. You don't forget that deep in the mountains climatic conditions can differ hard from the previous situation. This change can lead to oxygen starvation, pressure or altitude sickness. It mostly happens at a sufficient height. That’s why in this case you should focus on coming down and relaxing in a minimum period of time. You should come down in the same route as you climbed before.
Making a hike in a mountainous area, you need to properly move, namely to rest upon the whole foot, breathe correctly and keep a slow walk. Moreover, you should avoid dangerous areas. If there is a choice between direct, but unsafe road and the ability to bypass the danger zone, taking a long way around, you need to choose the second path.
Before hiking in a mountainous area, you should carefully make the weather conditions field-inspect and be able to identify it by the outward signs.
There can be considered following signs of deterioration weather
• sharp drop of atmospheric pressure
• appearance of plumeous clouds
• strong wind
• red flush of dawn is observed
There can be considered following signs of weather improvement
• churlish blasts
• gradual increase of atmospheric pressure
• slow cloud motion with weak wind
• night fog that disappears only at daybreak
You don't forget that unlike weather conditions on plains, in mountains climate change happens faster. Therefore, timely and proper use of these signs is very important for the safety of navigation and survival. At the slightest danger you should stop and soberly assess the situation. Perhaps the best solution of problem would be to wait out a suddenly appeared wind or snowfall.
One must be aware of rockfalls and snow avalanches, that in deterioration weather may at any moment collapse. During crossing you need carefully examine the slopes. If its depth is more than fifty inches, and the steepness is more than 20 degrees, then you can move across this slope only a few days after the snowfall in order not to expose yourself to unjustified risk. However, if the snow thickness is much more, you need to wait at least a week.
If it is impossible to avoid the avalanche, you need to get rid of excess goods: clothes, backpack, and take a horizontal position, trying to stay at the top of the snow stream. Do not panic, you need to save your energy for getting out of the situation. It is very important not to fall asleep.
To survive in mountains, you must be able to build a shelter that will protect you from bad weather. As a rule, it is a cave, located in a hiding place or an usual tent, set at a safe distance from snow avalanches and rockfalls. You should set the tent very carefully. If the shelter you plan to use is the cave, you should choose a slope with a snow cover of more than two meters. Snow should be shoveled inside the shelter. It should be noted that it is necessary to avoid cold overnight stays that can cause frostbites and injuries.
You should eat regularly. Remember that high atmospheric pressure may lead to decrease or complete appetite loss. To devote all your energy to survival, you need to eat. Problems with food can be solved by pasture forage: fishing, berries, plants or even wildfowl. Also, much more attention should be paid to water, that can be extracted in mountain lakes, ponds or springs. If there are no sources nearby - it is possible to melt snow. But it shouldn’t be eaten as it is.