English language Suomen kieli Russian language

Flora and fauna of Umbozero lake

The Khibiny and Lovozero tundra is characterized by high-altitude landscapes different by flora and fauna. Umbozero is located at a height of 419 meters and belongs to mpountain - forest belt until elevation 400-450 meters above the sea level. Southern lakeshores are covered by thick birch forest and crooked trees with coniferous. The major area is covered by birch forest then dwarf birch and thin forest. In dry places there is lichen. In boggy areas there are bushes. They are presented by: wild rosemary, bog rosemary, moss, lichen, cotton grass, horsetail, cloudberry, blueberry, red berry and other.

Flora and fauna of Umbozero lake

Here there are many mshrooms (birch boletus, russule, aspen and agaric). Part of local flora is used for eating; other is used for feed crop or industrial crop. Major part of local flora has medical properties and it possibly can be used in healthcare. Wild flora is used by local people for vegetation and landscaping.

Main coniferous species are spruce and pinetree. Spruce forests are mainly Siberian and Finnish spruce. Green moss spruce forest is most widely spread. In boggy areas there are long-stem moss spruces, irriguous areas are covered by sphagnous spruce. Pinewood can be found here as well. Main tree here is Frizian spruce. In such forests there is lichen or juniper underwood. In pinewoods there is a green moss, blueberry, redberry and crowberry.

Umbozero has water plant species, e.g., water crowfoot and large amount of algae (green and diatomic). It is a place for fish and other water organisms. During summer period phytoplankton amount is increasing being a good food for habitants of local waters.

It is a freash water lake and it has fauna of Arctic-mild type. Zooplankton includes shellfish as cladocera, rotifera, copepod, pearl - shell bivalve molluscs. They are nice food for fish. In Umbozero there are salmon trout and whirefish, Arctic char, vendace and pike. All types of fresh water fish are cold water fish as water is of low temperature due to geographical-geological and climatic peculiarities of Umbozero. Freshwater frogs are also a part of aqua world of the lake.

Mammals wildlife is: mink, ondatra, otter and beaver. Rodents are widely spread here. In the north of Umbozero in tundra forests there are hares, squirrels, Arctic foxes, wolverine, foxes, marten, wolves and brown bears. Theses predators are solitary. They inhabit certain place where there is a food and protect it against rivals. Cloven-footed here are elks and northern reindeers that live in herds and stick together for foraging.

Water birds here are goose, duck, swan and others. They have close feathers and thick floss due to cold water in Umbozero. Birds that live near water are osprey and white-tail sea eagle. In the forests of the Khibiny and Lovozero tundra there are hazel grouse, ptarmigan, black cock and wood grouse that live here all year round. Other birds are migrants. They are accustomed to small period of nesting and fast development. During warm season they built nests, in summer they grow younglings, during autumn cold they migrate to south.

Benthonic fauna is diverse and large in number. Insects like these places. The most wide-spread is mosquito. There are blackfly, lake scud, caddis fly, dayfly and worm-oligochaete. When cold weather comes at the end of August, all insects disappear.

Local ecosystems are influenced by man-made factor. It results in significant changes and destruction. Some species of plants and animals are decreasing or totally disappearing. Other species can be brought from other regions and get acclimatized.

Индекс цитирования     Яндекс.Метрика